THE PLACENAMES of ST AUGUSTINE'S, NORWICH,|
and some adjacent areas
'A local habitation and a name ...'
Names in italic are of locations or built structures that have been lost or renamed.
Adelaide Yard See Queen Adelaide Yard.
Anglia Square Shopping precinct built in the late 1960s over the historic Mereholt area to the west of Magdalen Street, over parts of Stump Cross and the lost parishes of St Botolph's and St Olave's. It has had several owners and a number of redevelopment plans have been drawn up but to date none have been carried through. The latest plans for its redevelopment were published in March 2018. See also Annes Walk, Botolph Way, Sovereign Way and Upper Green Lane.
Angel Yard Lost yard associated with the Angel tavern, which once stood on the east side of Oak Street.
Anguish's Boys Charity A stone plaque set high up on the front of a house on the west side of Oak Street (just north of the Inner Ring Road) reads 'Anguish's Boys Charity 1901.' Thomas Anguish was Mayor of Norwich in 1611. He died in 1617 and left money in his will to set up schools for the education of the city's poor boys and girls. It is not known what the connection is with this house, although, interestingly, Ragged School Yard once stood near here (a little to the north off the west side of St Martins at Oak Street, parallel and just to the south of Key and Castle Yard).
Annes Walk A passageway from Magdalen Street into the north-east corner of Anglia Square. See also Botolph Way, Sovereign Way and Upper Green Lane.
Bakers Road This road to the north of the line of the old City Wall runs between St Augustine's Gates in the east at the southern-most end of Aylsham Road (formerly known as St Augustine's Road) and St Martin's Road in the west. Curiously, is labelled Wingfield Road on the Ordnance Survey map of 1884. This may have been an error or reflects the developer's original intention (see Wingfield Road). It once had rows of terraced houses on both sides of the road, though only those on the north side now remain. It is not thought these were lost due to bombing in the Second World War but as a result of slum clearance. The Staff of Life public house once stood at its eastern-most end and this pub's name and the location of several bakeries in the vicinity presumably suggested its name to the developers of the area in the 1880s. The land here was once part of the Gildencroft and parts of it were still known as the Tabor's Folly and the Jousting Acre until the 18th century.
Baldwin's Yard See Dog Yard.
Barnes Yard This courtyard is located at the rear of St Augustine's Street opposite the Leonards Street car park. It is not known who Barnes was although it is interesting to note that between 1865 and 1867 the landlord of the Free Trade Tavern, which stood nearby on St Augustine's Street, was one Charles Barnes. There is no longer a passageway from this yard into St Augustine's Street. There is another Barnes Yard off Magdalen Street.
Bathhouse Yard Lost yard of the west side of St Martins at Oak Street, its entrance roughly opposite Jenkins Lane (also known as Chafe Lug Alley).
Beckham Place This runs off the north side of Edward Street into an area marked on the Ordnance Survey map of 1884 as Beckham's Yard.
Botolph Street Named after the now defunct church of St Botolph, demolished in 1548 (Abbot Botwulf of Thorney, died c.680 AD; a saint especially associated with East Anglia). Before Anglia Square was built in the late 1960s Botolph Street ran between the junction of Pitt Street and St Augustine's Street to the Stump Cross area of Magdalen Street. Prior to the economic depression in the mid-1930s Botolph Street was a bustling street with numerous dwellings, shops and pubs, as well as a number of shoe-making and textile-manufacturing factories. All are now gone, swept away in the late 1960s when Anglia Square was developed. Botolph Street now incorporates the north end of St George's Street (formerly Middle Street), which was cut off from its southern half by the Inner Ring Road in the early 1970s. The 1884 Ordnance Survey map lists eight pubs in Botolph Street: (south side going east) The Shuttles, Duke of Sussex, King's Arms Inn, Edinburgh Castle and Light Horsman; (north side going east) Britannia Tavern, Boatswains Call and Globe Tavern. The still cobbled portion of Botolph Street is in fact the remains of the northern portion of St George's Street, now bisected by the Inner Ring Road. See also New Botolph Street.
Botolph Way Passage way between Botolph Street and Anglia Square.
Bushel & Strike The Norwich Gazette of 21 September 1728 reported that "Samuel Gains, jun. and Samuel Morris, will sit at Mr. Thomas Fiddiment's at the Bushel & Strike in St Augustines Parish in Norwich, where will be given constant Attendance every Friday and Saturday till Noon, to buy Barley and other Grains, and will give as good prices as any Person whoever". Bushel & Strike may have been an earlier name of the Bushel tavern (see Bushel Yard). A bushel is a measure of capacity equivalent to eight gallons (36.4 litres), while 'strike' may refer to 'striking a bargain', in other words, agreeing the price to be paid for the farmer's grain.
Bushel Yard This lost yard was located between numbers 27 and 29 St Augustine's Street (east side). Its entrance was roughly where there's now a door between a former fishmonger's (Lincoln's) and an estate agents office. The yard was named after the Bushell tavern, which was located at no. 27. The Bushell closed in 1928 after having been in business for more than 200 years (see Bushel & Strike). The Norwich landscape artist and textile designer Obadiah Short (1803-1886) was born near here.
Calvert Street This street originally ran between Colegate in the south and Botolph Street in the north. With the construction of Anglia Square and the Inner Ring Road in the late 1960s/early 1970s it was cut in two. The northern portion disappearing beneath the concrete of Anglia Square roughly where it was joined by Green Lane. Whom Calvert Street is named after is a bit of a mystery. The most favoured explanation is that it was named after John Calvert, a Sheriff of Norwich in 1741 who may have had a house here. The southern portion of this street was (and still sometimes is) known by its old Saxon name of Snailgate.
Catherine Wheel Opening A lane on the north side of the Catherine Wheel pub at 61 St Augustine's Street (east side); the only pub on this street still trading (there were eight at one time). It runs between St Augustine's Street to an alley on the west side of the former Magpie public house on Magpie Road. The lane houses the former Norwich Blind Social Club and access to Stonemason's Yard. Until it was demolished in 1794, St Augustine's Gate stood only a few yards to the north of this pub (click here to see engraving) and lanes such as this provided access to the inside of the wall where all sorts of dwellings, stables and workshops could once be found. See also Wales Buildings and Zigzag Row.
Cattermoul Yard This lost yard was located on the west side of Pitt Street (now part of Duke Street) roughly where St Mary's House (AKA "The Hub") now stands. George Plunkett photographed it in 1937. Thought to be named after Everett Cattermoul, a bricklayer here in the early 19th century. Demolished after the Second World War.
'Chafe Lug Alley' See Jenkins Lane.
Chatham Street When it came to naming this street between Sussex Street with the Gildencroft in the 1880s, it was apparently thought that nearby Pitt Street was named after the British prime minister William Pitt 'The Younger' (1759-1806), son of the Earl of Chatham. In fact Pitt Street was originally called 'pit street' for the prosaic reason that it housed a large rubbish pit.
Cherry Lane This lane runs from the bottom of Pitt Street (east side) into Botolph Street (formerly St George's Street). It was once known as Tooleys Lane (see Pitt Street) but took its present name from the former Cherry Tree pub (see Cherry Tree Opening).
Cherry Tree Opening and Cherry Tree Yard This cul-de-sac now runs off what is now known as Botolph Street, but used to be part of St George's Street. Older maps seem to indicate that its opening was originally on Pitt Street. It is named after the Cherry Tree pub, later called the Golden Sovereign, which closed in 1988.
Church Alley This is the name once given to the lane in front of the row of half-timbered cottages to the south of St Augustine's churchyard. The dwellings here date from the 1580s and are said to be the longest row of Tudor cottages in England. Contrary to popular belief they were never alms houses. It is thought there were originally seven cottages; these were subdivided into 14 in the 18th century. The 1851 census recorded no less than 50 people living in these 14 cottages, 14 under the age of 16. By the 1950s they were dilapidated and the council considered pulling them down. Fortunately, they decided to restore them and convert them into six dwellings. Two, however, at the Pitt Street end, were demolished to allow the road to be widened. It never was! (See Gildencroft.)
Cooke's Hospital See Malzy Court.
Cross Street This street of 19th-century terraced housing (all now gone) ran off the south side of Sussex Street. It was renamed The Lathes in the late 1970s when an estate of maisonettes was built behind Sussex Street.
Crown and Anchor Yard Lost yard to the Crown and Anchor pub at 97-100 Calvert Street; the pub closed in 1936.
Dalimond Also known as the Dalimund or Dalymond stream, ditch or dyke, the Dalimond is one of the lost streams of Norwich. Its name is probably a back-formation from a topographical feature of the area, a small mound or hill (Dal's Mound). The stream (or 'cockey' in the local dialect) is thought to have flowed into the city under the old city wall roughly where the junction of Magpie Road with Edward Street is today, before meandering through Stump's Cross and Fishergate to the River Wensum somewhere near Hansard Lane. The Dalimond was discovered to be still flowing underground through gravel beds during excavations in Peacock Street in 1985. Another version of its name was the Balymondyke.
Dalimond Croft An area west of St Augustine's Street and east of Edward Street, covered today by Esdelle Street and Leonards Street, was known as the Dalimond Croft in the early Middle Ages. The Dalimond stream is likely to be a back-formation. See Dalimond.
Dalymond Court Two adjacent blocks of flats built in 2014/15 on Edward Street, named after the croft that once covered this area. See Dalimond Croft.
Damien Elton Court Late 20th-century gated court of three apartments in Rose Yard but who was Damien Elton?
Dark Entry Yard Lost yard located on east side of Pitt Street near the Queen Adelaide pub, which was demolished in 1967.
Delph Yard This was located between numbers 35 and 37 St Augustine's Street (east side). The site of its entrance on St Augustine's Street is now covered by a 20th-century-built vestibule between two shop premises. William Delph ran a plumbers and glaziers business here in the 19th century. He was also a churchwarden at St Augustine's church, where he was involved in a controversy concerning the shortening of the churchyard boundary in the 1870s. His son was landlord of the nearby Prince of Wales pub. See Prince of Wales Yard.
Dog Yard Located on the east side of Oak Street in a row of 17th-century weavers' cottages (nos 98-108). Yards in Norwich often take their name from the tavern or inn they stood beside, but no record of a Dog tavern in Oak Street has been found. It is next door to Talbots Yard. A talbot was the name of a type of hunting hound; coincidence? Two other yards, Goat Yard and Baldwin's Yard, were also in this block, but are no longer individually named.
Dovehouse Yard This lost yard is mentioned in Matthew Brettingham's lease of land in the Gildencroft dated 1751. It adjoined The Lathes.
Eagle Opening This lane was located to the east of the Spread Eagle pub in Sussex Street. It is now the (unnamed) entrance to Sussex House, a former shoe factory (Clarkes) and latterly an office of Norwich Union insurance (Aviva). Before the shoe factory was built this site was occupied by a nursery, a place were fruit and vegetables were grown in the 19th century.
Ebenezer Place A collection of two- and three-storey 20th-century council flats off Sussex Street around a small wooded area, built on the site of Ebenezer Terrace, a row of 19th-century labourers' cottages demolished in the 20th-century. It is not known how it got its name. Ebenezer was a name often given to non-conformist chapels in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. ('Ebenezer' is Hebrew for 'stone of help'.) St Augustine's parish was an important focus of dissenting activity in this period by Quakers, Baptists and Methodists, though no record of an Ebenezer chapel having once stood here has yet been found.
Edward Street A late 19th-century street (it doesn't appear on the 1885 Ordnance Survey), the street today runs between Magdalen Street and Magpie Road. It was originally somewhat shorter and only ran between Esdelle Street (in a gap between Salisbury Terrace and Zigzag Row on Magpie Road) and Rose Yard. Its present Magpie Road end was previously part of Esdelle Street, while its present Magdalen Street end was Minns Yard. It is not known why it was called Edward Street. A lost stream, the Dalimond, once flowed into the city near here. The area to the west of Edward Street was then known as the Dalimond Croft, while the area to the east was known as St Margaret's Croft after the the lost church of St Margaret Combusto.
Elephant Walk This curiously named pedestrian-only lane runs between Calvert Street and Magdalen Street on the south side of the Inner Ring Road flyover and to the north of Doughty's Hospital. Its name derives from Elephant Yard, which once stood here behind the Elephant pub in Stump Cross (Magdalen Street).
Esdelle Street A street of late 19th-century terraced houses without front gardens that runs off the east side of St Augustine's Street. It meets Edward Street in the east and also provides access to Leonards Street. It was probably built between 1885 and 1886. It doesn't appear on the 1885 Ordnance Survey map while one of the houses on its southern side has a plaque stating 'Robert Terrace 1886'. Esdelle is probably a made up or portmanteau name rather than a forename, so this is not one of Norwich's 'lady streets'. Shorten & Armes had a shoe factory here from the 1930s and the 1970s. When they moved to new premises in Drayton Road the factory was named Esdelle Works.
Fellmonger's Yard This lost yard ran off the eastern side of Oak Street roughly where the Inner Ring Road now passes the detached northern portion of Oak Street. A fellmonger dealt in animal carcasses that were unfit for human concumption, rendeing them for their hides, flesh and bones for dog meat, glue etc. A very smelly trade! The Railway Arms pub stood at the entrance to this yard.
Frelane This lane, mentioned in documents dating from the 13th century, once ran to the west of St Martin's at Oak.
The Folly The Ordnance Survey map of 1884 shows a narrow lane or "loke" (a local word for a narrow lane) with this name running between the north side of Sussex Street and the western end of Ebenezer Terrace. It is probable that this is a late survival in common usage recalling the Folly Grounds that once existed near this location (see Folly Grounds). A grassy corridor, possibly marking the route of The Folly, still exists to the west of a 3-storey block of flats at 46-56 Sussex Street
Folly Grounds This plot of land stood in the northwest corner of the Gildencroft between the Jousting Acre and Tutt Hill near St Martin's Gate. It appears to have been a place of recreation for music, dancing and 'camping', an early form of football (click here for more information) and may have been connected with a tavern and piece of ground near here known as the Tabor's Folly. The earliest known mention of Tabor's Folly is on a map of 1746 printed to accompany volume 2 of Francis Blomefield's Topographical History of Norfolk. While it is generally believed that 'Tabor' refers to the small drum used in medieval and Renaissance times, it is interesting to note that in the 1650s and 1660s, during a period of religious controversy, there was a well-known churchwarden and overseer of St Martin at Oak church and freeman of Norwich called John Tabor. Parts of the Gildencroft, right up to the city wall, were then detached part of St Martin at Oak parish. From early medieval times until the Reformation an icon of the Virgin Mary hung in an oak tree in St Martin's churchyard, attracting large numbers of pilgrims. During the reign of Edward VI the image was removed by Protestant iconoclasts and the tree felled. About 100 years later, on 9 March 1656, John Tabor, a gardener by trade, brought an oak tree from "Ranner Hall" (possibly Ranworth Hall) and replanted it in St Martin's churchyard. Could the Tabor's Folly have perhaps commemorated this unusual feat?
Fuller's Hole An area on the east bank of the River Wensum near present-day
St Martin's Close and the Watering. Accoording to 18th-century historian Francis Blomefield the name derived from its proximity to a fulling mill; however, while this association with fuller's earth - a type of clay used for fulling (i.e. cleaning and thickening) cloth - seems plausible, given the many textile manufacturers in the area, it is though more likely to derive from the name of a nearby hall or manor house called Fuller's Hall and Fuller's House, named after its owner, Alderman Fuller. This medieval hall was demolished during slum clearances in St Martin's parish in the 1930s and nothing of it now remains, though fortunately there are a couple of good, 19th-century representations of it: a drawing by David Hodgson and a painting by Henry Ninham. "Hole" was a local dialect word for a narrow passage leading to the river. The name's association with the textile trade cannot be entirely discounted, however. On the west bank of the river near here was an area known as the Bleaching Ground where cloth was laid out to bleach in the sun. According to Francis Blomefield the churchyard of St Martin at Oak had a headstone to a John Brooks who was drowned in the river near Fuller's Hole on 1 September 1747 alomg with Isaac Wolfery.
Fullman House See Jenkins Lane.
Gildencroft Today the Gildencroft comprises a small public park to the southwest of St Augustine's churchyard and the lane that runs along its north side. It was once a much larger area of open land located west of St Augustine's Street, east of St Martin at Oak Street, south of the city wall and noth of Martin's or Whores Lane. It is thought to have been part of the manor of 'Tokethorp' or Tolthorpe in the early Middle Ages, but was later owned by the Great Hospital of St Giles in Bishopsgate. It was known as the Gilding or Gipping Croft on some 18th-century maps. Other placenames associated with the Gildencroft are the Folly Grounds, the Jousting Acre, the Quaker Burial Ground, the Hebrew Congregation Cemetery, Jenkins Lane, Gildencroft Lane and Quaker Lane (click here for more information). (See also Church Alley.)
Gildencroft Lane See Quaker Lane.
Gildengate and Gildengate Street See Middle Street.
Gilding Croft or Cross See Gildencroft.
Gipping Croft or Cross See Gildencroft.
Globe Yard Lost yard named after the Globe public house at 37 Botolph Street. Pub closed in 1908 when found to be 'small and inconvenient' and not wanted by in the neighbourhood (there were 17 other licensed premises in the area); pub was formerly known as the Old Globe.
Goat Yard See Dog Yard.
Gos Lane See Jenkins Lane.
Great Hall, The Partly 15th-century timber-framed house on west side of Oak Street.
Green's Lane See Upper Green Lane.
Greenhill Road This road of terraced houses, which runs between Aylsham Road and St Martins Road, commerates the Greenhill Pleasure Gardens that once stood here.
Hammond's Yard Recorded in the 1891 and 1901 Censuses located between 50 and 57 St Augustine's Street and comprising two dwellings, numbered 1 and 2. Seems to have been a temporary name for an area previously known as Stone Yard (see Stonemason's Court).
Hebrew Congregation Cemetery Jewish cemetery at southeast corner of Talbot Square. This small plot of land was leased by Norwich's Hebrew Congregation in 1813. It ceased being used for burials in 1854. Click here for more information.
Hermitage, The Marked on an early 18th-century plan of Norwich as a house built into the city wall to the west of St Augustine's Gates.
Hills Yard Lost yard in Pitt Street.
Hindes Yard This yard is located between numbers 13 and 15 St Augustine's Street (east side). Hindes Yard, Rose Yard and Wine Coopers Arms Yard are the only yards left in St Augustine's that the public can still walk through. Of the three, Hindes Yard is probably the closest to what many of Norwich's yards were once like: narrow, winding and dark. The yard is probably named after the Hinde family, who owned a silk shawl manufactory in nearby Botolph Street in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The Hinde family tomb is located almost opposite the yard bearinmg their name, in the northeast corner of St Augustine's churchyard. Click here for image. In 2010 the name of this yard was set in stone in a newly laid pavement outside the entrance to the yard.
Hospital of St Mary and St Clement Leper or 'Lazar' house which stood outside the city wall to the east of St Augustine's Gate on what is now known as Wateloo Road. By the 18th century it was being used a 'poor house' for 'lunatic paupers'. It was eventually the approximate site of the Norwich Incorporation's workhouse infirmary and later the borough lunatic asylum.
Howard Terrace Name given to a block of three-storey, early 19th-century town houses on the north side of Sussex Street, which were converted into flats by Broadland Housing Association in the 1970s.
Jenkins Lane Alley between Chatham Street and Oak Street, well known in Norwich for its narrowness for hundreds of years. The earliest known description of this passage way (though unnamed) is dated 1472. The first known reference to it as Jenkins Lane is on a map of 1696. It may have been used by the Quakers to gain access to their burial ground in the Gildencroft in the 17th century and by the Jews to access their cemetery near present-day Talbot Square in the early 19th century. Called Gos Lane by Francis Blomefield in the 18th century. Who or what Gos or Jenkins were hasn't been established. It acquired the nickname 'Chafe Lug Alley' by locals because it was said to be so narrow one risked chaffing one's lugs (i.e. ears) passing through it. Currently without any name plate. In the 18th century it abutted Mr Thompson's Garden, Yards and Brewery Offices on its north side. On the Ordnance Survey map of 1885 it is named Jinkin's Lane and interestingly there is an Old Brew Yard and a Little Brew Yard and Malthouse near to its northwest end. The buildings there, formerly used as a malt house then used for curing bacon, are now a youth training centre also known as Fullman House after a Lord Mayor of Norwich, Councillor David Fullman.
Jewish Cemetery (see Hebrew Congregation Cemetery).
Jousting Acre Part of the Gildencroft, located in its northwest corner, roughly between present-day Ebenezer Place and Bakers Road inside the line of the city's medieval wall. It is thought that Norwich's knights and men-at-arms practised their martial skills here, including mock combat on foot and horseback, tilting at the quintain on horseback and on foot as well as practicing the longbow. It is possible that the grand tournament held in Norwich on St Valentine's Day 1340, which was attended by King Edward III and the Black Prince, was held here.
Justine Acre See Jousting Acre.
Key and Castle Yard This new development of houses and flats on the west side of Oak Street gets its name from the yard that stood behind the Key and Castle public house, which finally called last orders in 1958. One of its landlords was William Sheward, who kept the pub here briefly in 1868-9. In a fit of drunken melancholy he confessed to the police that he had murdered his wife nearly 20 years earlier and disposed of her body by chopping her up and depositing of the parts all around the outskirts of Norwich. Despite having no other evidence to link him to the discovery of unidentified body parts around Norwich in 1851 other than his wife's disappearance and his deranged confession, he was found guilty and hanged at Norwich Gaol. Ragged School Yard once ran parallel and to its south.
Lathes, The An estate of 42 maisonettes and flats built in the late 1970s and managed by Broadland Housing Association, located off the south side of Sussex Street. Its name is taken from that of a farm that covered this area from the Middle Ages until the late 18th century. 'Lathe' is an old English dialect word for a type of barn. Two rows of enclosed walkways in the modern complex are known locally as "the tunnels". Click here for more information.
le pittes at thre howses Name of a pasture outside St Augustine's Gate in the late 13th century and by its name probably a midden or rubbish pit.
Leonards Street This L-shaped street of late 19th-century terrace houses runs between Esdelle Street and Edward Street. It was begun to be built in 1886 shortly after Esdelle Street. It lost the short row of four houses that once stood on its western side, possibly as a result of enemy bombing during the Second World War. It is often confused with St Leonard's Road in Thorpe Hamlet but is not a saint street. See also St Austin's Croft.
Magpie Road This road runs between St Augustine's Gates and Magdalen Gates to the north of the line of the old city wall. The Magpie pub, roughly one-third of the way along its length from its western end was known as the Weighing Chains in the mid-19th century, as it had a weighbridge in front of it to weigh wagons. Fragments of the city wall are still visible to the rear of Magpie Road in Catherine Wheel Opening (see above). The 1885 Ordnance Survey map gives the names of four blocks of terraced housing on the road's south side: Salisbury Terrace, Zigzag Row, Malvern Terrace and Herbert Terrace. See also Wales Buildings.
Malzy Court A secluded group of former almshouses at the bottom of Chatham Street near the Gildencroft Quaker Burial Ground. The eight, small, brick-built cottages and courtyard that comprise Malzy Court were built in the early 1890s at a cost of £1,700 as almshouses of Cooke’s Hospital, a charitable institution established in 1692 by brothers Thomas and Robert Cooke. The charity's original foundation was in Rose Lane but encroaching railway development and rising maintenance costs forced it to find a new location and the Gildencroft was eventually chosen. A small plot of land here was purchased from the Great Hospital at a cost of £125. At the opening ceremony in August 1892 the oldest resident, a Mrs Wallbank, was given her choice of cottage then each of the other seven women almoners were called up in alphabetical order to choose their new home. In April 1899 the Master of Doughty's Hospital, Mr Intwood, was appointed Master of Cooke's Hospital. The two charitable institutions were eventually amalgamated under the provisions of the 1910 Norwich Charities Consolidation Act. In the mid-1970s the Trustees decided to move the residents of Cooke's Hospital to new accommodation nearer Doughty's Hospital, Cooke's Court, which was opened in 1980. The empty cottages and courtyard of Cooke's Hospital were purchased by Norfolk estate agent Frank Potter, who renamed the area Malzy Court after his grandfather Amand Malzy, whose family came from the village of Malzy in northern France.
Mereholt The Mereholt was a large wooded area to the north of Botolph Street, one edge of which was located roughly where Botolph Street meets Anglia Square. Its name possibly means the pool in a wood or the boundary of the wood. The wood itself seems to have disappeared by the beginning of the 14th century and was last mentioned in a land record of 1506.
Middle Street See St George's Street.
New Botolph Street The name given in 2010 to a new road that links Edward Street with Pitt Street, part of the St Augustine's Gyratory.
Nichols Yard Located between numbers 19 and 21 St Augustine's Street (east side). Its entrance can still be seen from St Augustine's Street and it still has a name plate even though it is currently blocked at this end. The yard behind widens out into a courtyard where there are still a small number of occupied dwellings. It isn't known why it was called Nichols Yard, though interestingly the Nichols Brothers bakers and confectioners were once ocated just across the street. In 2010 the name of this yard was set in stone in a newly laid pavement outside the St Augustine's Street entrance to the yard.
Nunn's Yard This yard is located between numbers 31 and 33 St Augustine's Street (east side). The yard can still be glimpsed through its gated entrance. The Nunn family ran a number of local businesses from their premises here in the mid-19th century, including a hairdressers, a seed merchants and an insurance agents. In 2010 the name of the yard was set in stone in the newly paved footpath outside the St Augustine's Street entrance to the yard.
Oak Street See St Martin's at Oak Street.
Old Brew Yard and Little Brew Yard Lost yards on east side of St Martin's at Oak Street, associated with a former malthouse that runs along the north side of Jenkins Lane.
Old Globe Yard See Globe Yard.
Parsonage houses In 1597 Bishop Redman’s 'Visitation' (i.e. a tour of inspection of Norwich Diocese's property by church officials) found St Augustine’s parsonage houses ‘greatlie ruinous and redie to fall downe’. It is possible that these dwellings for the use of thr rector and his curate were located on the north side of the churchyard, perhaps behind what is now known as Winecooper's Arms Yard. There is a blocked-up doorway still visible on the inside of the north wall of the church which may have been used to access these buildings.
Pynfalde, The A pound or 'penfold' for cattle or horses that once stood at the Botolph Street end of Middle Street (see St George's Street).
Pitt Street This street, which runs from the St Crispins Road roundabout to its junction with St Augustine's Street, has had a number of name changes over the centuries. Before the Inner Ring Road was built in the early 1970s it stretched as far as St Mary's Plain over what is now regarded as the southern end of Duke Street. St Olave's (or Olaf's) church stood on the east side of this street until 1546 when it was demolished. Because its proximity this street was sometimes known as Tooley Street (Tooley being a mispronounciation of '[S] tOlave'). A large rubbish pit was here, at the east end of the churchyard, gave rise to its original name, Pit Street, which in turn was gentrified into Pitt Street (see Chatham Street and Cherry Lane). Shoe manufacturer John F. Kirkby had a factory here.
Prince of Wales Yard This yard is located on the south side of 39 St Augustine's Street, which is currently the premises of the Private Shop but which was once the premises of the Prince of Wales public house. The yard is now gated but one can still see through the gate into the old yard behind.
Quaker Burial Ground Located at the southern end of Chatham Street. The Norwich Society of Friends (Quakers) bought this plot in the Gildencroft from the Great Hospital of St Giles in 1650. Click here for more information.
Quaker Burial Ground passageway Before Sussex Street and Chatham Street were built in the 19th century access to the Quaker Burial Ground was difficult. The Quakers therefore took out a lease on a narrow strip of land between St Martin's Lane and the Gildencroft just wide enough for a wagon bearing a coffin to be led to their Burial Ground. A crescent was added between the entrances to the Friends' Meeting House and the Burial Ground to allow the wagon and its horse to turn around. This can still be seen today between the entrances to the Treehouse Chidren's Centre and the Quaker Burial Ground. The Quaker Burial Ground passageway itself, or part of it, can also still be seen: it now forms the entrance lane to Malzy Court (formerly Cooke's Hospital almshouses).
Quaker Lane This lane once ran between St Martin's Lane (also known as Whores Lane) in the south to the Gildencroft in the north. It was originally known as Gildencroft Lane and was in reality a very narrow footpath between two plots of land. It acquired its present-day name Quaker Lane because of its proximity to the Friends (Quakers) Meeting House, built in 1699, and the adjoining Quaker Burial Ground (purchased by the Quakers in 1650). The construction of ther Inner Ring Road in the early 1970s cut off the north end of Quaker Lane from its southern portion.
Queen Adelaide Yard Located on east side of Pitt Street near Morris Printers, somewhere between Nos 53 and 57, presumably named after the Queen Adelaide pub, demolished in 1967. The pub had a skittle alley.
Quintain Mews Close of 19 dwellings off the north side of Sussex Street constructed in 2013 on the site of Sussex House (see below). A quintain was a swivelling target used for jousting practice. The land here is close to an area described as the Jousting Acre on early plans of Norwich.
Ragged School Yard See Anguish's Boys Charity.
Robert Terrace Block of Victorian terraced housing on south side of Esdelle Street. A stone plaque above one of the houses reads 'Robert Terrace 1886'. It isn't known who Robert was.
Rose Yard This was once the largest 'yard' in St Augustine's and reputedly the largest yard in Norwich. More of a street in its own right than a yard, its entrance can be found today between numbers 7 and 9 St Augustine's Street. The archway here is wide enough to drive a horse and coach through, which is indeed what it was designed to do as the building on its south side here was formerly the Rose Inn, a coaching inn that operated here from the 14th to the mid-20th century. The north side of the yard was occupied in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by the premises of De Carle's (the forerunner of present-day Coleman Opticians), a Norwich chemists which producd their own bottled fruit-flavoured mineral waters and a cough linctus known as "Lungene" in workshops at the rear of their St Augustine's Street shop. From its St Augustine's Street entrance, Rose Yard once stretched right over to Edward Street and in the 19th century contained rows of two- and three-storey tenaments with tunnel-like passageways through them to smaller yards behind. The yard also contained shops, a boot factory and Norwich's first Primitive Methodist or "Ranter" chapel. For more information click here.
Royal Oak Yard (1) Lost yard associated with the Royal Oak pub, which once stood on the east side of St Martins at Oak Street, roughly where The Talk nightclub's carpark is now.
Royal Oak Yard (2) This yard is located between numbers 54 and 64
St Augustine's Street (west side) behind the premsies of the former Royal Oak public house (closed in the 1960s). There were presumably at least five small dwellings here at one time to account for the jump in house numbers from 54 to 64. Like Rose Yard (see above), the entrance is wide enough to accommodate a horse and carriage. The yard once housed stables, presumbly for guests staying at the pub, and a licensed 'shoeing smith' was still working here in the 1950s. In 2010 the name of this yard was set in stone in a newly laid pavement outside the St Augustine's Street entrance to the yard.
St Augustine's church Earliest documented mention of this church dates from 1163. Present building mainly early 15th-century with 17th-centuiry brick west tower or steeple and various 19th-century additions and 'restorations'. It is the only pre-Reformation church in Norfolk with this dedication. Also known as St Austin's.
St Augustine's Church Alley This runs between the junction of Pitt Street and St Augustines' Street and the Gildencroft. St Augustine's churchyard is on its north side and a row of 16th-century cottages said to be the longest surviving terrace of dwellings of this age in England.
St Augustine's churchyard Large open space around St Augustine's church. The churchyard was the focus of a controversy in the 1870s when parts of its eastern end had fallen into the road, obstructing traffic. After the churchyard wall was shortened to allow the road to be widened, the Church authorities prosecutd the churchwardens for having in effect stolen church property, namely the lost portion of churchyard. One of the churchwardens spend a short time in Norwich prison as a result. A public water supply was once available from the churchyard wall under a large ornamental urn (click here to see photograph). In 1894 the Church Commissioners sold the churchyard to Norwich Corporation to allow the space to be made into a public garden of rest. It is currently owned and managed by Norwich City Council.
St Augustine's Gates A fortified medieval barbican, which stood at the top of St Augustine's Street for 500 years; sometimes called St Austin's Gate or Port. Part of the city's northern defences in the Middle Ages when it had a working portcullis, battlements, a catapult and a garrison of guards. In later periods domestic dwellings were built inside and over its top. It was demolished in 1794. The junction of St Augustine's Street, Aylsham Road, Baker Road, Waterloo Road and Magpie Road, is known as St Augustine's Gate. In 2010 the line of the old city wall was commerated by specially engraved stones placed in the pavement on either side of St Augustine's Street.
St Augustine's Gyratory A clockwise, one-way road system constructed in
St Augustine's in 2010 in order to inprove the air quality in St Augustine's Street. Comprises St Augustine's Street, part of Magpie Road, part of Esdelle Street, Edward Street, New Botolph Street and part of Pitt Street.
St Augustine's Mill Postmill that stood to the north of St Augustine's Gate until the early 19th century, possibly between Patteson Road and Eade Road. Shown on Cleer's plan of Norwich of 1696.
St Augustine's Road The former name of the southern end of Aylsham Road where it forms a junction with four other roads - Bakers Road, St Augustine's Street, Waterloo Road (formerly Infirmary Road) and Magpie Road. St Augustine's School stood on its north side.
St Augustine's School This once stood on a lozenge of land outside St Augustine's Gates. It was founded in the 1830s and lasted until 1942 when is was destroyed by enemy bombing. The School comprised a mixed infants, a girls and a boys school, each with its own separate buildings and playgrounds. Click here for more information.
St Augustine's Street Named after the church of St Augustine which stands on its west side, this street is both the parish's high street and one of the main arterial roads of Norwich's northern city centre. It runs between its junction with Pitt Street and Botolph Street in the southeast to St Augustine's Gate in the north. In the 18th century is was generaly known as St Austin's Street - Austin being an abbreviated form of Augustine popular at that period. It is one of Norwich's eight saint streets. The 1885 Ordnance Survey map lists nine pubs in St Augustine's Street (east side going north) Rose Inn, Free Trade Tavern, Bushel Inn, Prince of Wales and Catherine Wheel; (west side going north) Winecoopers Arms, Sussex Arms, Royal Oak and Staff of Life. Another tavern, known as the Shoulder of Mutton, also stood here. Only the Catherine Wheel remains open today. In 2010 St Augustine's Street was made into a one-way road for north-bound traffic only, as part of the St Augustine's Gyratory system.
St Austin's Croft This rare placename appears on a plan of Norwich dated 1746 that was printed to accompany Robert Blomefield's Topographical History of Norfolk. A square area of about one acre is shown on the east side of St Augustine's Street (roughly where Esdelle and Leonards Street are now) with the title 'Croft of the Rector of St Austin's - St Austin's Croft'. Presumably glebe land, part of the rector of St Augustine's living.
St Austin's Street Alternative name for St Augustine's Street, often found in 18th-century documents and maps.
St Clement's without St Austin's Gate The architect Matthew Brettingham mentions owning a property here in his will of 1769. This may have been roughly where Bakers Road is today. A detached portion of the parish of St Clement's extended beyond the city wall. St Austin was a common abbreviation of St Augustine, particularly in the 18th century.
St George's Street This street used to run from St Andrew's Street to Botolph Street. It has also been known by several other names: Middle Street, Blackfriars Bridge Street, the Gildengate, and going back even further, as the Mereholt, a wood that once covered most of the present-day Anglia Square area. When the Inner Ring Road and Anglia Square were constructed in the late 1960s/early1970s, the northern portion of St George's Street was cut off from its southern half. The isolated northern part was then redesignated as part of Botolph Street. This small stretch of road is unusual in still being largely paved with cobbles rather than tarmac.
St Martin's at Oak Street This street, usually known simply as Oak Street, once ran between Westwick Street on the south bank of the River Wensum and Aylsham Road in the north. Today it is regarded postally as three or four distinct streets: Coslany Street (at its southern end), Oak Street (south of the Inner Ring Road), Oak Street (north of the Inner Ring Road) and St Martin's Road (at its northern end). Its name derives from St Martin's at Oak church, which had a large hollow oak tree in its churchyard in which there was an icon of the Virgin Mary.
St Martin's at Oak Wall Lane This narrow lane runs between St Martin's at Oak Lane and St Augustine's Street along the route of the city wall, substantial fragments of which can be seen here. At its western end the lane traverses areas of the Gildencroft within the city wall known as the Folly Grounds and the Jousting Acre. It is marked on the Ordnance Survey map of 1885 as "Under the Wall".
St Martin's cockey This small stream ('cockey' in Norfolk dialect) once ran from St Martin's churchyard west into the River Wensum.
St Martin's Lane This lane used to run between Oak Street (or St Martin at Oak Street as it was formerly known) and Pitt Street. The construction of the Inner Ring Road in the early 1970s reduced the lane to a cul-de-sac. Its name derives from St Martin's-at-Oak church also known as St Martin's Coslany. St Martin's Lane also had another name, one which has attracted much curious attention, namely Whores Lane. It has been suggested that rather than being a lane associated with prostitutes, Whores Lane derives from an Old English expression 'Horslane' meaning 'dirty road' or possibly even 'boundary road'. St Martin's Lane or Whores Lane marks the southern boundary of the Gildencroft.
Shoulder of Mutton lost pub in St Augustine's Street or Botolph Street, owned by Morgan's Brewery from around 1778. Last heard of in 1865.
Sovereign House Glass and concrete office block, built in 1968 to a design by Norwich-based architects Alan Cooke & Partners, which towers over Anglia Square. Until the mid-1990s it housed offices of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO), hence, presumably 'Sovereign'. Due to be demolished as part of the redevelopment of the area.
Sovereign Way Passageway between the south-east corner of Anglia Square and Magdalen Street.
Staller's Lane Lost lane, possibly named after a local merchant, John Staller, who lived near here during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. Its exact location is uncertain. It may have run between Tooley Street and St Augustine's Street. A gentleman named Thomas Staller owned the Jousting Acre in the Gildencroft in 1751.
Stonemasons Court A small court of houses off the east side of St Augustine's Street. A faded painted advertisement for Arthur Hall, Stonemason, can still be seen on the wall of a house adjacent to the court. Another local stonemason, Arthur Woods, also had premises in St Augustine's Street. Previously known as Stonemasons Yard, Hammond's Yard and earlier still as Stone Yard on the Ordnance Survey map of 1885.
Stump Cross Name of area at the former junction of Magdalen Street and Botolph Street, lost when Anglia Square was developed in the late 1960s. Its name probably derives from a broken cross that stood here and was a well-known landmark. The Lowestoft-born satirist, Thomas Nashe, apparently alludes to this placename in his work Lenten Stuff (published 1599). Comparing the respective rights of Norwich and Great Yarmouth to have invented the kipper, he writes of the "Guilding Cross in the parish of St Saviour's (now stumped up by the roots) so named, as they would have it, of the smoky gilding of herrings there first invented ..."
Sussex House Name of former office block set back off the north side of Sussex Street between Howard Terrace and St Martins at Oak Wall Lane. Used as an office by Norwich Union Insurance (now known as Aviva) until 2008. The building was formerly a shoe factory, Clarke's. Its gently rising, narrow entrance lane off the north side of Sussex Street was once known as Eagle Opening (see above), probably because of its proximity to the Spread Eagle public house (now closed). The land here was occupied by a horticultural nursery until the early 20th-century, a last link to the agricultural use of land in the parish from the early Middle Ages (see, e.g. the Lathes). An earlier Sussex House, long demolished, was located on the south side of the western end of Sussex Street (at number 90). It is so marked on the 1885 Ordnance Survey map with extensive gardens behind it. Click here to see a photograph of the front elevation of this house. The former shoe factory and office block was demolished in 2012 (see Quintain Mews).
Sussex Street This long, broad and very straight street runs between St Augustine's Street in the east and the northern section of Oak Street in the west. It began to be developed in the 1820s over land known as the Gildencroft, farmland owned by the Great Hospital of St Giles in Bishopsgate from the late Middle Ages until the 18th century, when it began to be parcelled up and either sold or leased in lots. A plan of the estate made in about 1770 doesn't show a footpath or even a field boundary along the approximate route that Sussex Street would take fifty years later. It may be that in the intervening years the land here was further subdivided and leased or sold off to private buyers, creating a new boundary line. The buildings on Sussex Street are very varied and this probably reflects that fact that the were built by different developers at different times. A stone plaque on the south side of the street above Numbers 6 and 8 has the date 1824 and the initials B.H.J. It is not known who or what these letters stands for. Another stone plaque, almost opposite, high up above number 1, bears the street's name, Sussex Street. Such stone street names are very rare. About half way up on the north side of the street is the Spread Eagle public house (closed in 2010 and now converted to a domestic residence), which has stood here since at least the 1830s. Sussex Street had junctions with Eagle Opening and Ebenezer Terrace on its north side and Cross Street (now known as The Lathes) and Chatham Street on it south. Almost all of the originally buildings at the western end of the street have disappeared and been replaced by council flats or commercial buildings. Why the street was named Sussex Street is a bit of a mystery. In the 19th and early 20th centuries there was a pub named the Duke of Sussex at the St Augustine's Street end of Susex Street. There was also a pub named the Sussex Arms nearby in Botolph Street. No connection between this area and the county of Sussex or the Duke of Sussex has yet been discovered. The ducal peerage of Sussex was created in 1801 by George III for his sixth son, Prince Augustus Frederick. He died in 1843 when the peerage became extinct.
Tabor's Folly See Folly Ground.
Talbert's Yard Alternative spelling of Talbot's Yard. See Talbot's Yard.
Talbot Square 1950s-built corporation council flats on three sides of a small green surrounded by railings. Presumably named after Talbot's Yard, which is just to its west. The Hebrew Congregation Cemetery is located at its south-east corner.
Talbot's Yard Located on the east side of Oak Street behind a row of 17th-century weavers' cottages (numbers 98 to 108). On the Ordnance Survey map of 1885 it is named Talbert's Yard. It isn't certain how it got its name, however it may be significant that Talbot's Yard is next to Dog Yard. Talbot is an old name for a large, white-coated breed of hunting dog, now extinct. There were two other yards near here, Goat Yard and Baldwin's Yard, but unlike Talbot's Yard and Dog Yard, these no longer have their own name plates. Nearby Talbot Square, built in the mid-20th century, was presumably named after this yard.
Tofts Garden This stood roughly where a car park is now located at the end of Chatham Street, though it originally comprised a larger area (over two acres in extent) that bordered by the Gildencroft's Quaker Burial Ground in the north, Quaker Lane in the west and St Martin's Lane (also known as Whore's Lane) in the south. It is named 'Tofts Garden and Orchard' on a plan of the Gildencroft dated 1770. Whether by coincidence or horticultural survival there is still an old, gnarled crab apple tree growing on the south border of the car park.
Tooley's Street See Pitt Street.
Tut Hill This small hill, also known as Tot or Tote Hill, was located in the northwest corner of the Gildencroft near St Martin's Gate. Tut is thought to mean 'lookout'. Its earliest known mention occurs in 1291. It may have been a man-made mound designed to form part of Norwich's northern defences or perhaps an accidental structure, composed of earth excavated during the digging of the ditch that fronted the newly built city wall here.
Upper Green Lane Raised roadway in Anglia Square that provides a link between a multi-storey car park (currently closed) and the St Crispins inner ring road. It runs roughly at right-angles to where Green's Lane once linked Middle Street (later known as St George's Street) with Calvert Street (formerly known as Snailgate). Green's Lane is thought to have been named after a lawyer who once lived here. In the 19th century it had a pub at its Calvert Street end called the Hope Tavern. Green's Lane was the birthplace in 1775 of Dr William Crotch, a child musical prodigy. A green plaque attached to the north wall of the Surrey Chapel commemorates his association with the area.
Wales Buildings Lost tenament that appears to have been located between
St Augustine's Gate and Magdalen Gate, somewhere behind the line of the old city wall on the south side of Magpie Road. Recorded in the 1851 Census as mainly in
St Augustine's parish and partly in the adjacent parish of St Paul's to the east and comprising about 40 households. See also Zigzag Row.
Watering, The Lane that runs off the west side of St Martin's Road near the east bank of the River Wensum. Drovers once watered their cattle here.
Whores Lane See St Martin's Lane.
William the Fourth Yard Yard to the William the Fourth pub in Gildengate (Middle Street); pub closed in 1908.
Wine Coopers Arms Yard This yard is located between numbers 30 and 32
St Augustine's Street (west side). The Wine Coopers Arms public house was at no. 30. It was known as the St Augustine's Wine Vaults in the 1840s. In common with much of the property in and around the Gildencroft, this premise was owned for much of the 19th century by the Great Hospital of St Giles and its charitable successors. The pub ceased trading in 1936. Originally the yard lead to a small group of dwellings behind the pub, but there is now a passage way though this yard to The Lathes. In 2010 the name of this yard was set in stone in a newly laid pavement outside the St Augustine's Street entrance to the yard.
Wingfield Road Oddly, this road of late 19th-century terraced houses that runs between Aylsham Road and St Martin's Road is marked in the position of present-day Bakers Road on the Ordnance Survey map of 1884, while its present actual location is marked out but unnamed. Both roads were still in the process of being developed for residential housing at this period and it may be that the Ordnance Survey's cartographers simply made a mistake. A plaque on the side of one of the houses on the north side of Wingfield Road inscribed "Wingfield Terrace 1883" seems to confirm this. A bakery, Rant's, once stood at its western end. The stable where the baker's delivery van and horse or pony was once stabled can still be seen behind the shop (now a newsagents etc.) It is not known who or what Wingfield was.
Winters Yard Lost yard on east side of Pitt Street near No. 84.
Woodenhouse Yard Lost yard in Botolph Street, mentioned in 1851 Census.
Zigzag Row A row of Victorian terraced houses on the south side of Magpie Road listed on the 1884 Ordnance Survey map. See also Wales Buildings.